Authors: Richa Srivastava✉ and Ram Singh. Available online: March 25, 2020
Total Downloads: [php_everywhere]
Abstract: The petrochemical-based plastics are causing a strong challenge for the natural ecosystem leading to global environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. Hence, the requirement of alternative materials possessing environmental advantages received attention and leads to the development of bioplastics. Definition of bioplastics is not universal but broadly it can be defined as biodegradable plastic derived from biodegradable substances. Although, all types of bioplastics are not biodegradable, still their many advantages towards the environment cannot be ruled out and hence, their applications in varied areas have increased many-folds world-wide. Bioplastics are being used in rigid and flexible packaging materials, food and drinks containers, dining utensils, electronic devices, automotive and airplane parts, cable sheaths and casings, noise and thermal insulation panels and many more. The list is growing up. Bioplastics have shown their potential for a sustainable society and presents some advantages such as lower carbon footprint, energy efficiency, and eco-safety. This article discusses the basic information, sources, biodegradability, and applications of bioplastics.
Publisher’s note: This journal (AJEB) and its publishers remains neutral with regard to any claims in published maps, institutional affiliations, opinion’s or otherwise. Information presented in this article is the sole responsibility of its authors.
North EJ, Halden RU. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead. Rev Environ Health. 2013; 28(1):1–8.
Law KL. Plastics in the marine environment. Ann Rev Marine Sci 2017; 9:205-229.
Ryan PG, Dilley BJ, Ronconi, RA, Connan, M. Rapid increase in Asian bottles in the South Atlantic Ocean indicates major debris inputs from ships. Proc Nat Acad Sci 2019; 116(42): 20892–20897.
Amulya K, Reddy MV, Rohit M, Mohan SV. Wastewater as a renewable feedstock for bioplastics production: understanding the role of reactor microenvironment and system pH. J Clean Prod 2016; 112:4618–4627.
Chidambarampadmavathy K, Karthikeyan OP, Heimann K. Sustainable bio-plastic production through landfill methane recycling. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2017; 71:555–562.
Chen YJ. Bioplastics and their role in achieving global sustainability. J Chem Pharmaceut Res 2014, 6:226 231.
Schutyser W, Renders T, Van den Bosch S, Koelewijn S, Beckham GT, Sels BF. Chemicals from lignin: An interplay of lignocellulose fractionation, depolymerisation,and upgrading. Chem Soc Rev 2018; 47(3):852–908.
Duval A, Lawoko MA. Review on lignin-based polymeric, micro-and nanostructured materials. React Funct Polym 2014; 85:78–96.
Singh R. Poly(lactic acid) as degradable resorbable polymer matrices in biomedical engineering: An overview. In. J Eng Res Adv Tech (IJERAT). 2018; 4(5):56-62.
Iwata T. Biodegradable and bio-based polymers: Future prospects of eco-friendly plastics. Angew Chem Int Ed 2015; 54:3210–3215.
Thakur S, Govender PP, Mamo MA, Tamulevicius S, Thakur VK. Recent progress in gelatin hydrogel nanocomposites for water purification and beyond. Vacuum 2017; 146:396–408.
Thakur S, Govender PP, Mamo MA, Tamulevicius S, Mishra YK, Thakur VK. Progress in lignin hydrogels and nanocomposites for water purification: future perspectives. Vacuum 2017; 146:342–355.
Kumar S, Thakur KS. Bioplastics – classification, production and their potential food applications. J Hill Agri 2017; 8(2):118-129.
Albuquerque PBS, Malafaia CB. Perspectives on the production, structural characteristics and potential applications of bioplastics derived from polyhydroxyalkanoates. Int J Biol Macromol 2018; 107(Pt A):615-625.
Miller SA. Sustainable polymers: replacing polymers derived from fossil fuels. Polym Chem 2014; 5:3117–3118.
Sarasini F, Tirillò J, Puglia D, Dominici F, Santulli C, Boimau K, Valente T, Torre L. Biodegradable polycaprolactone-based composites reinforced with ramie and borassus fibres. Compos Struct 2017; 167:20–29.
Brodin M, Vallejos M, Opedal MT, Area MC, Chinga-Carrasco G. Lignocellulosics as sustainable resources for the production of bioplastics-A review. J Clen Prod 2017; 162:646–664.
Teodorescu M, Bercea M, Morariu S. Biomaterials of poly (vinyl alcohol) and natural polymers. Polym Rev 2018; 58:247–287.
Gatea IH, Abbas AS, Abid AG, Halob AA, Maied SK, Abidali AS. Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas putida producing bioplastic (Polyhydroxyalkanoate) from vegetable oil waste. Pak J Biotechnol 2018; 15:469–473.
Kumar M, Ghosh P, Khosla K, Thakur IS. Recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates from municipal secondary wastewater sludge. Biores Technol 2018; 255:111–115.
Raza ZA, Abid S,Banat IM. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: characteristics, production, recent developments and applications. Int. Biodeterior Biodegr 2018; 126:45–56.
Lemoigne M. Produit de dehydration et de polymerization de l’acide β-oxybutyrique. Bull Soc Chim Biol 1926; 8:770-782.
Zinn M, Witholt B, Egli T. Occurrence, synthesis and medical application of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate. Adv Drug Rev 2001; 53:5-21.
Madison LL, Huisman GW. Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxy alkanoates): from DNA to plastic. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1999; 63:21-53.
Luengo JM, Garcia B, Sandoval A, Naharroy G, Olivera ER. Bioplastics from microorganisms. Curr Opin Microbiol 2003; 6:251–260.
Jabeen N, Majid I, Nayik GA. Bioplastics and food packaging: A review. Cog Food Agricul 2015; 1:1117749.
Park H, Li X, Jin C, Park CY, Cho W-J. Preparation and properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch/clay hybrids. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2002; 287:553–558.
Tharanathan RN. Review e biodegradable films and composite coatings: Past, present and future. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2003; 14:71–78.
Mali S, Grossmann MVE, Garcia MA, Martino MN, Zaritzky NE. Microstructural characterization of yam starch films. Carbohyd Polym 2002; 50:379-386.
Rhim JW, Hong SI, Ha CS. Tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties of PLA/nanoclay composite films. Food Science and Technology, 2009; 42:612–617.
Modi SJ Assessing the feasibility of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (PHBV) and poly(lactic acid) for potential food packaging applications (Thesis). 2010, Ohio State University.
Demirgöz D, Elvira C, Mano JF, Cunha AM, Piskin E, Reis RL. Chemical modification of starch based biodegradable polymeric blends: Effects on water uptake, degradation behavior and mechanical properties. Polym Degrad Stab, 2000; 70:161–170.
Shamsuddin IM, Jafar JA, Shawai ASA, Yusuf S, Lateefah M, Aminu I. Bioplastics as a better alternative to petroplastics and their role in national sustainability: A review. Adv Biosci Bioeng 2017; 5(4):63-70.
Mensitieri G, Di Maio E, Buonocore GG, Nedi I, Oliviero M, Sansone L, Iannace S. Processing and shelf-life issues of selected food packaging materials and structures from renewable resources. Trend Food Sci Techn 2011; 22:72–80.
Müller CMO, Laurindo JB, Yamashita F. Effect of cellulose fibers addition on the mechanical properties and water vapor barrier of starch-based films. Food Hydrocolloid 2009; 23:1328–1333.
Haugaard VK, Danielsen B, Bertelsen G. Impact of polylactate and poly(hydroxybutyrate) on food quality. Eur Food Res Techn 2003; 216:233–240.
Olabarrieta I, Cho SW, Gallstedt M, Sarasua JR, Johansson E, Hedenqvist MS. Aging properties of films of plasticized vital wheat gluten cast from acidic and basic solutions. Biomacromol 2006; 7:1657-1664.
Johansson E, Malik AH, Hussain A, Rasheed F, Newson WR, Plivelic T, Hedenqvist MS, Gallstedt M, Kuktaite R. Wheat gluten polymer structures: the impact of genotype, environment, and processing on their functionality in various applications. Cereal Chem J 2013; 90:367-376.
Wieser H. Chemistry of gluten proteins. Food Microbiol 2007; 24:115-119.
Kuktaite R, Ture H, Hedenqvist MS, Gallstedt M, Plivelic TS. Gluten biopolymer and nanoclay derived structures in wheat gluten–urea–clay composites: relation to the barrier and mechanical properties. ACS Sust Chem Eng 2014; 2:1439-1445.
Song JH, Murphy RJ, Narayan R and Davies RBH. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2009; 364:2127–2139.
Singh R, Shahi S, Geetanjali. Chemical degradation of poly(bisphenol A carbonate) waste materials: A review, Chemistry Select 2018; 3:11957– 11962.
Thakura S, Chaudhary J, Sharma B, Verma A, Tamulevicius S, Thakur VK. Sustainabilityof bioplastics:
Opportunities and challenges. Curr Opin Green Sust Chem 2018; 13:68–75.
Stevens ES. Green Plastics: An Introduction to the new science of biodegradable plastics (Princeton: Princeton University Press), 2002.
Hottle TA, Bilec MM, Landis AE. Sustainability assessments of bio-based polymers. Polym Degrad Stab 2013; 98:1898–1907.
Emadian SM, Onay TT, Demirel B. Biodegradation of bioplastics in natural environments. Waste Manag 2017; 59:526–536.
Brüster B, Addiego F, Hassouna F, Ruch D, Raquez J-M, Dubois P. Thermo-mechanical degradation of plasticized poly (lactide) after multiple reprocessing to simulate recycling: multi-scale analysis and underlying mechanisms. Polym Degrad Stab 2016; 131:132–144.
Trivedi P, Hasan A, Akhtar S, Siddiqui MH, Sayeed U, Khan MKA. Role of microbes in the degradation of synthetic plastics and manufacture of bioplastics. J Chem Pharmaceut Res. 2016; 8(3):211-216.
Castro-Aguirre E, Auras R, Selke S, Rubino M, Marsh T. Insights on the aerobic biodegradation of polymers by analysis of evolved carbon dioxide in simulated composting conditions. Polym Degrad Stab 2017; 137:251-271.
Itävaara M,Karjomaa S, Selin J-F. Biodegradation of polylactide in aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic conditions. Chemosphere 2002; 46:879–885.
Moon J, Kim MY, Kim BM, Lee JC, Choi M-C, Kim JR. Estimation of the microbial degradation of the biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid)(PLA) with a specific gas production rate. Macromol Res 2016; 24:415–421.
Mellinas C, Valdés A, Ramos M, Burgos N, del M, Garrigós C, Jiménez A. Active edible films: current state and future trends. J Appl Polym Sci 2016, 133.
Kaur H, Banipal TS, Thakur S, Bakshi MS, Kaur G, Singh N. Novel biodegradable films with extraordinary tensile strength and flexibility provided by nanoparticles. ACS Sust Chem Eng 2012; 1:127–136.
Volova TG, Boyandin AN, Vasiliev AD, Karpov VA, Prudnikova SV, Mishukova OV, Boyarskikh UA, Filipenko ML, Rudnev VP, Xuân BB. Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in tropical coastal waters and identification of PHAdegrading bacteria. Polym Degrad Stab 2010; 95:2350–2359.
Rudnik E, Briassoulis D. Degradation behavior of poly (lactic acid) films and fibers in soil under Mediterranean field conditions and laboratory simulations testing. Ind Crops Prod 2011; 33:648–658.
Mostafa NA, Farag AA, Abo-dief HM, Tayeb AM: Production of biodegradable plastic from agricultural wastes. Arab J Chem 2018; 11(4):546-553.
Ho K-LG, Pometto AL, Hinz PN. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on polylactic acid plastic degradation. J Polym Environ 1999; 7:83–92.
Santella C, Cafiero L, De Angelis D, La Marca F, Tuffi R, Ciprioti SV. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Waste Manag 2016; 54:143–152.
Adhikari D, Mukai M, Kubota K, Kai T, Kaneko N, Araki KS, Kubo M. Degradation of bioplastics in soil and their degradation effects on environmental microorganisms. J Agric Chem Environ 2016; 5:23.
Kale G, Kijchavengkul T, Auras R, Rubino M, Selke SE, Singh, SP. Composability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview. Macromol. Biosci. 2007; 7:255–277.
Shah AA, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv 2008; 26:246–265.
Karamanlioglu M, Preziosi R, Robson GD. Abiotic and biotic environmental degradation of the bioplastic polymer poly(lactic acid): A review. Polym Degrad Stab 2017; 137:122-130.
Mohee R, Unmar GD, Mudhoo A, Khadoo P, Biodegradability of biodegradable/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Waste Manage 2008; 28:1624–1629.
Bátori V, Åkesson D, Zamani A, Taherzadeh MJ, Horváth IS. Anaerobic degradation of bioplastics: A review. Waste Manag 2018; 80:406–413.